Traces the private lives of a group of people caught up in the cataclysm of the French Revolution and the Terror. The author based his historical detail on Carlyle's "The French Revolution", and his own observations and investigations during his numerous visits to Paris.
The Dutch Revolt has long been hailed as the triumph of political freedom over monarchical tyranny. In 1781, John Adams observed that the American Revolution was its "transcript." Known for its many protagonists-King Philip II, the Duke of Alba, the counts of Egmont and Hornes, radical Calvinists, obstreperous townspeople, and William of Orange-the Dutch Revolt brought into relief conflicts among civic freedoms, religious dissent, representative institutions, and royal authority. Drawing on a vast array of sources-including archival documents, political and religious pamphlets, ballads, chronicles and letters, and a rich store of popular prints-Peter Arnade gives us a new history of the core years of the revolt between 1566 and 1585, showing how the act of rebellion forged a political identity through ritual, symbol, and public action. In Beggars, Iconoclasts, and Civic Patriots, Arnade focuses on the political culture that took shape during the Revolt, a culture that itself fueled decades of turmoil. He sees the pulse of the Revolt in its public dramatization-the acts, words, and cultural representations that were its "daily bread and popular voice." The violent wave of radical iconoclasm that swept the southern Netherlands in 1566 is the book's pivot, setting the stage for the Duke of Alba's brutal effort to restore the authority of the Spanish crown. Arnade details the sieges and violent sacks of Dutch cities by the Army of Flanders, and the response of Dutch rebels, who touted defiant cities as the seats and guarantors of unassailable rights and freedoms. This civic patriotism hailed William of Orange as father of the fatherland, his apotheosis hearkening back to late medieval princely ritual even as it invoked new republican imagery.
Preface: Dynamics of Evolutionary Processes, James P. Crutchfield and Peter Schuster. MACROEVOLUTION. The Sloshing Bucket: How the Physical Realm Controls Evolution, Niles Eldredge. Developmental Morphospaces and Evolution, Gunther J. Eble. The Dynamics of Large Biological Systems: A Statistical Physics View of Macroevolution, Stefan Bornholdt. EPHOCHAL EVOLUTION. On the Population Genetics of Punctuation, Aviv Bergman and Marcus W. Feldman. When Evolution Is Revolution, James P. Crutchfield. Evolution and Speciation in a Hyperspace: The Roles of Neutrality, Selection, Mutation, and Random Drift, Sergey Gavrilets. Molecular Insights into Evolution of Phenotypes, Peter Schuster. POPULATION GENETICS, DYNAMICS, AND OPTIMIZATION. The Nearly Neutral Theory with Special Reference to Interactions at the Molecular Level, Tomoko Ohta. Spectral Landscape Theory, Peter F. Stadler. Quasispecies Evolution on Dynamic Fitness Landscapes, Nigel Snoad and Martin Nilsson. Recombination and Bistability in Finite Populations, Lionel Barnett. EVOLUTION OF COOPERATION. On the Dynamic Persistence of Cooperation: How Lower Individual Fitness Induces Higher Survivability, Guy Sella and Michael Lachmann. Coevolution of Strategies in n-Person Prisoner's Dilemma, Kristian Lindgren and Johann Johansson. Evolutionary Design of Collective Computation in Cellular Automata, James P. Crutchfield, Melanie Mitchell, and Rajarshi Das. Index
From the bestselling author of The Invention of Nature , a fascinating look at themen who made Britain teh center of the botanical world. Bringing to life the science and adventure of eighteenth-century plant collecting, The Brother Gardeners is the story of how six men created the modern garden and changed the horticultural world in the process. It is a story of a garden revolution that began in America. In 1733, colonial farmer John Bartram shipped two boxes of precious American plants and seeds to Peter Collinson in London. Around these men formed the nucleus of a botany movement, which included famous Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus; Philip Miller, bestselling author of The Gardeners Dictionary ; and Joseph Banks and David Solander, two botanist explorers, who scoured the globe for plant life aboard Captain Cook's Endeavor. As they cultivated exotic blooms from around the world, they helped make Britain an epicenter of horticultural and botanical expertise. The Brother Gardeners paints a vivid portrait of an emerging world of knowledge and gardening as we know it today.