Volkswagen. The name means "people's car" in German, which would certainly be just another bit of trivia, barely capable of arousing even a passing interest, except for its absolute accuracy, remarkable in the modern marketing lexicon of dazzling product names and slogans for its simple, irrefutable truth. For if any car is truly of the people, it's the Volkswagen Beetle. On the whole, the car resembles nothing more than a great, eager-to-please pet, and yet it owes its existence to Adolf Hitler, who dreamed of an affordable, mass-produced car for the German worker. Happily, this was the extent of the little Beetle's association with the dictator, as production of the car was immediately turned over to the brilliant automotive engineer, Ferdinand Porsche. Porsche's original design was inspired by an egg; obviously, he "got" the Beetle. Still, the road from Porsche's early designs, through World War II, American liberation and British occupation was a long one, and the Beetle that first captured the hearts of drivers all over the world wouldn't appear until 1951. Even then, the car that would eventually become the official car of the revolution and a genuine 20th-century icon took a while to catch on. It wasn't until VW's legendarily clever and unconventional advertising campaigns that the car really became synonymous with the vibrant, unrestrained generation that made it their hallmark. But even that doesn't explain the enormous popularity of the car, or the fondness it inspired in its owners, or the simple way that just the sight of it could lift your spirits. The secret is this: the Beetle was the first car with a soul. Engagingly and authoritatively written, deliciouslydesigned and featuring more than 300 gorgeous color and black & white photos, this is the long-awaited record of the Volkswagen Beetle, from its earliest beginnings to its latest rebirth. Along the way you'll find examples of the priceless ad campaigns, a chronicle of the growing subculture of Beetle restorers and modifiers, and a complete timeline of the creation of the new Beetle. Like the car itself, this book is not only the history and celebration of an automobile, it's also a vital record of our society's changing image of itself.
Virginia is definitely for lovers--of history As the site of the first permanent English settlement in North America, the birthplace of a presidential dynasty, and the gateway to western growth in the nation's early years. Virginia can rightfully be called the "cradle of America." In this first single-authored history of Virginia since the 1970s, Peter Wallenstein traces major themes across four centuries in a brisk narrative that recalls the people and events that have shaped the Old Dominion. Historical accounts of Virginia have often emphasized harmony and tradition, but Wallenstein focuses on the impact of conflict and change. From the beginning, Virginians have debated and challenged each other's visions of Virginia, and Wallenstein shows how these differences have influenced its sometimes turbulent development. Casting an eye on blacks as well as whites, and on people from both east and west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, he traces such key themes as political power, racial identity, and education. Bringing to bear his long experience teaching Virginia history, Wallenstein takes readers back, even before Jamestown, to the Elizabethan settlers at Roanoke Island and the inhabitants they encountered, as well as to Virginia's leaders of the American Revolution. He chronicles the state's dramatic journey through the Civil War era, a time that revealed how the nation's evolution sometimes took shape in opposition to the vision of many leading Virginians. He also examines the impact of the civil rights movement and considers controversies that accompany Virginia into its fifth century. The text is copiously illustrated to depict not only such iconic figures as Pocahontas, GeorgeWashington, and Robert E. Lee, but also such other prominent native Virginians as Edgar Allan Poe, Carter G. Woodson, and Patsy Cline. Sidebars throughout the book offer further insight, while maps and appendixes of reference data make the volume a complete resource on Virginia's history. As people in Virginia and elsewhere prepare to observe the 400th anniversary of Jamestown's settlement, Wallenstein's fresh interpretation marks a significant commemoration of that beginning of Virginia--and America--and shows us that the adventure of Virginia has in many ways been the adventure of America.
An engaging range of period texts and theme books for AS and A Level history. The 'short nineteenth century', characterised by the growth of nationalism and revolutions, both political and economic, saw the emergence of a Europe of nation states and great industrial power. Peter Browning provides an incisive and lively account of four countries: Italy, France, Russia and Germany. For each, he identifies the main political and economic factors that help explain its development and assesses the role of national leaders such as Mazzini, Napoleon III, Nicholas I and Bismarck. He outlines the main historical debates about the four countries and sets their development in the context of the 'long nineteenth century'. The book contains a range of visual and written primary sources which help develop skills of interpretation and evaluation, providing a better understanding of the period. Revolutions and nationalities includes an additional document study section on Italian unification.
Es ist sicherlich kein Zufall, daB die neue Verfassung der DDR yom 6. April 1968 den Artikel 48 zum symboltrachtig postierten Zentralar tikel des staatlichen Organisationsgefliges wahlte. Ratte die Weimarer Verfassung mit den gesetzgeberischen Notstandsbefugnissen ihres be ruchtigten Artikel 48 jenen Sprengsatz in das parlamentarische System eingebaut, mit dessen Rilfe die Prasidialkabinette ermoglicht und die Parlamente aus dem politis chen EntscheidungsprozeB katapultiert wur den, so solI offenkundig Artikel 48 der DDR-Verfassung demgegenuber unverbruchliche Geltungskraft des Gegenprinzips postulieren: "Die Volks kammer ist das einzige verfassungs- und gesetzgebende Organ in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Niemand kann ihre Rechte einschran ken. " Und in Lenins Gefolgschaft - der in seiner beruhmten, 1917 erst mals publizierten Schrift "Staat und Revolution" die burgerlichen Parla mente verachtlich als "Schwatzbuden" abqualifizierte, denen das Prole tariat seine neuen arbeitenden, d. h. zugleich gesetzgebenden und voll ziehenden Vertretungskorperschaften entgegenstellen sollte - heiBt es weiter in Artikel 48 der neuen Sozialistischen Verfassung: "Die Volks kammer verwirklicht in ihrer Tatigkeit den Grundsatz der Einheit von BeschluBfassung und Durchflihrung. " Die Botschaft kontrastiert allerdings mit der Realitat. Bereits 1954 hatte Bertold Brecht als systemkonformer Beobachter in vorsichtiger Doppeldeutigkeitgeseufzt: "Vielleicht machen wir zu wenig aus unserer Volkskammer. " Tatsachlich scheint die Volks kammer jenes deutsche Parlament zu sein, das bei seinen seltenen offent- lichen Auftritten Lenins Epitheton den hochsten Tribut zollt: es prasentiert sich als eine "Schwatzbude" ohne echte Entscheidungsmacht. Die Entwicklung hierzu war bereits mit der alten Verfassung ermoglicht.