A compelling history of the national conflicts that resulted from efforts to produce the first definitive American dictionary of English In The Dictionary Wars, Peter Martin recounts the patriotic fervor in the early American republic to produce a definitive national dictionary that would rival Samuel Johnson's 1755 Dictionary of the English Language. But what began as a cultural war of independence from Britain devolved into a battle among lexicographers, authors, scholars, and publishers, all vying for dictionary supremacy and shattering forever the dream of a unified American language. The overwhelming questions in the dictionary wars involved which and whose English was truly American and whether a dictionary of English should attempt to be American at all, independent from Britain. Martin tells the human story of the intense rivalry between America's first lexicographers, Noah Webster and Joseph Emerson Worcester, who fought over who could best represent the soul and identity of American culture. Webster believed an American dictionary, like the American language, ought to be informed by the nation's republican principles, but Worcester thought that such language reforms were reckless and went too far. Their conflict continued beyond Webster's death, when the ambitious Merriam brothers acquired publishing rights to Webster's American Dictionary and launched their own language wars. From the beginning of the nineteenth century to the end of the Civil War, the dictionary wars also engaged America's colleges, libraries, newspapers, religious groups, and state legislatures at a pivotal historical moment that coincided with rising literacy and the print revolution. Delving into the personal stories and national debates that arose from the conflicts surrounding America's first dictionaries, The Dictionary Wars examines the linguistic struggles that underpinned the founding and growth of a nation.
This is the first full scholarly study of rural politics in France during the Second Republic (1848-1952). The Revolution of 1848 and the subsequent liberation of political life changed the face of mass politics in rural France. Unprecedented numbers of French men and women participated in legal and illegal forms of political activity during a period of protracted crisis ultimately resolved by a military coup d'etat. Peter McPhee's book draws on hundreds of regional studies to examine the large-scale political mobilizations of right and left in the countryside, and offers a new synthesis and interpretation of these years. Dr. McPhee shows that rural politics were both more complex and more threatening to urban elites than has been generally recognized. This is a lucid and challenging analysis of a turbulent period in modern French history and its long-term social and political consequences.
Blond, blue-eyed Lily, with a smile as enigmatic as the Mona Lisa and calculated to melt the heart of the fiercest warlord, is thirteen, the daughter of Russian nobles who escaped the Bolshevik Revolution by emigrating to Tientsin, China. She has been reared by her staunchly Russian grandmother in this Far Eastern city, but now Grandmama is dead, and Lily is supposed to go to America to live with her guardian, Peter. But, on the day of Grandmama's funeral, Japanese soldiers break into her house, and Lily is catapulted from a pampered life of plenty into a flight for her life through the war torn China of 1938. Follow Lily as she challenges war, loneliness, pirates, and one larger-than-life soldier of fortune in a journey through mounting danger to a hopeful new future. And, if that's not enough, enjoy the hint of romance to come.
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